The Enneagram Center for Transformation and Change
Enneagram Center for Transformation and Change
South Portland, Maine 04106

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The Type One is the principled, idealistic type. Healthy Ones are conscientious and ethical, with a strong sense of
right and wrong. They are teachers, crusaders, and advocates for change: always striving to improve things, but
afraid of making a mistake. Well-organized, orderly, and fastidious, they try to maintain high standards, but can slip
into being critical and perfectionistic. They typically have problems with resentment and impatience. At their Best:
wise, discerning, realistic, and noble. Can be morally heroic

Now let's talk about the beloved Type One. The Reformer, known for being principled, purposeful, self-controlled
and perfectionistic
[2].  At their best, the One is objective, selfless, and determined to improve the world they live in,
to serve a higher purpose or mission. Al Gore comes to mind and his work of Inconvenient Truth. He has taken on
global service to the planet with the intention of improving and perfecting how we treat planet earth and ourselves.
Rational, logical, idealistic, objective, he reminds us of what the high ground is for human beings: taking actions that
serve everyone.

Two of my very best friends are Type Ones, and this is for certain, I couldn't have two finer advocates for
supporting me in my self-improvement and clarity of purpose. Honest, fair, kind, discerning, paragons of truthful and
right action, they are dedicated friends who are willing to help in the highest sense of the word. If you are willing to
work, they will work to support you. Now, for those of you who know dear Ones, we've each had the experience of
falling under their radar of perfection. That is, if you want someone to point out the details of what is wrong and how
to improve a particular situation, be it your home, your car, your approach to life, One's are hard-wired for economy
of action, for improving a thing so it works at its best. And being wired this way, they can become compelled by it, on
bad days transfixed, seeing the details of what's wrong more dominantly than seeing what's right and perfect. That
is, their attention goes to what's wrong, what needs to be improved, what isn't efficient. Like all of the Types they
have an instinctive way of attending to life, of looking through one window of perception. That's the amazing thing
about understanding the Types. You get the rare opportunity of realizing that your take on life is, in fact, only one-
ninth of reality, and that's on a good day. Humbling, but the stuff of good humor. The difficulty in living with a One is
that this “error-finder” is operational a good deal of the time, and you can begin to feel under surveillance (because
you are!) even when they say nothing. You see it in their tightened body, their scowl, their clenched jaw, their
furrowed glances. You know they want to tell you that you've done it wrong again, but they're holding back, chewing
on impatience and anger, trying to live up to an inner ideal of being a kind and fair individual. It's a tough road to
travel. And within them, well, there's a storm of thoughts going on, a list flying through their heads of what needs to
be done next, what isn't finished, what hasn't been finally perfected, because they are perfectionists. In fact, they
are the queens and kings of perfection, and what this allows them to do, drives them to do, is to produce quality,
flawless work that is beyond criticism (And it is—excellence in action!). See, if they are perfect at what they do, then
you can't criticize them. And thus, can't tap the sensitive hot wire inside them, their core fear of being evil, or
defective, which runs like a deep river within their psyche
[3].  They have a relentless task master that has no mercy
upon them, a superego, inner critic who says “Here's the deal, friend. You are good or okay if you do what is right
and don't make mistakes. Errors are not tolerable. Do it perfect. That’s the standard. So get to work. And perfect
means perfect. Now good luck, and have a nice day.”
[4]  And then scoffs, as if to say, “You'll never be able to
succeed. Consider yourself failed and evil.” Which puts the One into frenetic motion to do, to do, to be perfect, to
please this superego, who by the way, can't and won't be pleased. Ever. Learn that now and you can start the
party. The problem is, the mechanism that drives this inner critic can be quite hidden and unconscious. That is, the
core fear that drives the One is that they are defective, evil, and bad. This root fear drives the behavior to prove
this fear wrong.

But the truth is, each Type runs on a treadmill trying to please their particular Inner Critic and it is with time that
each individual begins to understand that this action is fruitless, and that try as they may, succeed as they may,
they still can't stop dancing to the tune of their superego. That's often when each of the Types enter spiritual or
transformation work. They know they are missing what is sweet and precious within them, but can't stop jumping to
the superego's demands. One's really and truly do not want to push you away with their habit of judging you and
everything else. They'd stop on a dime if they knew how.

So, here's part of the psychic structure for the One. The emotional habit of the One is resentment and anger, while
the One’s mental habit is being captured by the judging mind
[5].  If you've identified yourself as a One you know that
your attention is often attracted to discovering what is wrong, what isn't being done properly, what needs to be
organized, and an unmistakable tendency to want to improve everyone and everything around you. The mental
compulsion of determining and judging what is “wrong” with self, others, or whatever one is attending to sets the
One up for a nonstop thought process that allows them little rest, nor the ability to be able to savor what is
wonderful, sweet, good, precious. Driven by this mental reflex of judging, and the accompanying arising of
resentment and anger (towards themselves and others who can't keep up with their perfectionism, or who haven’t
done the work the One feels they should have done) suffering ensues for the One, and those in their life. Criticism
suffering. Perfectionism suffering. Nothing being good enough, suffering. For the Type One who decides that he or
she has suffered enough, has criticized himself and others enough and is ready to change, the Enneagram
becomes a powerful tool for self-exploration, observation, and genuine change. But change does not occur as you
might think it would. Here is the gift of the Enneagram, in that it offers a clear, counter-intuitive solution for each of
the Types.

So, to summarize, the One at their best delivers a kind of flawless excellence in their work. Their Achilles heal, often
spoken to me by my dear One friends is that they are so driven by perfectionism, that in the realm of relationship
they are also driven to perfect their partner. Unwittingly they are compelled to analyze the relationship such that
spontaneity and the free flow of heart-opening love and emotion dries up, or is scolded into submission. And you
know what it’s like to be the target of someone else’s perfectionism plan—not fun. Dreary. Strict. Restricting.
Serious. Punitive. And not relaxing. The One, under stress, does what all the Types do. They share their
personality habit with you, so that you experience what they are experiencing. For the One, under the heavy cloak
of it’s strict inner critic, pulls you under their cloak to share their inner critic voice of condemnation, hyper-vigilance
to error, and judgmental perfectionism. But, as the One begins to do the delicate inner work of Enneagram
exploration, the driven knot of resentment and judgment that drives the unhealthy expression of perfectionism
begins to loosen, making room the sincere and deeply kind heart of the One to awaken. And then the party starts,
meaning the One begins to move in the direction of the Seven...and here comes the comedian, the adventurer, the
prankster, the one filled with joyous curiosity


1 From
The Wisdom of the Enneagram, pgs. 11-12 The Types in Brief. All Rights Reserved Copyright 2001 The
Enneagram Institute.
2 From
The Wisdom of the Enneagram by Don Riso and Russ Hudson, p. 99
3 See
The Wisdom of the Enneagram, pgs. 97-124 for a thorough description of all aspects of the Type One.
Wisdom of the Enneagram, p. 99.
5 See
Understanding the Enneagram by Riso and Hudson, p. 63-66.
6 See
Wisdom of the Enneagram, p. 92 for information on the path of integration in the Types.
*Information on each of the nine Riso-Hudson type names  and related Enneagram concepts are from the
Enneagram Institute
© Copyright 1998-2011.  All rights reserved.  Used with Permission.  Please see our relevant
Dedication.  For the Very Best information available on the Enneagram go to